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Dogs + Diagnosis

  • Infertility in a male dog is defined as the inability to produce a successful pregnancy in a fertile female, even with multiple breedings near the time of ovulation. The causes of infertility fall under three broad categories: failure to copulate or ejaculate, poor semen quality, and prostatic disease. This handout explains the possible causes in detail, as well as methods to diagnose and treat them.

  • Meningoencephalitis is a term referring to inflammation of the brain and the surrounding fluid and tissues. Meningoencephalitis of unknown origin is a term used to describe those cases of meningoencephalitis in which MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicate the disease but diagnosis through histopathological analysis is not possible. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressant drugs, sometimes with the addition of antibiotics. The prognosis depends on several factors, which are also explained in this handout.

  • Pets that have been diagnosed with epilepsy are usually prescribed one or more medications to prevent convulsions or seizures. Careful monitoring of epileptic pets is necessary, not only to make sure the dose of the medicine is right, but also to ensure there are no problems related to the long-term use of the medication. The most important thing to do is follow your veterinarian's instructions closely and give the medication regularly and consistently. This will ensure that the value reported on the blood test is reliable.

  • Pancreas-specific lipase is a form of lipase produced only in the pancreas and is highly specific to the pancreas. Blood values increase only when there is pancreatic inflammation. A version of the cPLI test can now be used in-clinic (SNAP fPL© from IDEXX). Ideally, the sample should also be sent to the laboratory to get an actual value of cPLI to help with treatment and monitoring.

  • Pre-anesthetic testing is the best way to minimize anesthetic risks and ensure good surgical outcomes. Pre-anesthetic testing consists of, at minimum, a full physical examination. Depending on the patient and the reason for anesthesia, blood testing including CBC and biochemistry is often recommended and additional testing such as urinalysis, radiographs, EKG or more advanced testing may be needed. The results of pre-anesthetic testing are used to formulate the safest anesthetic plan for your pet.

  • A blood test detects pregnancy in the pregnant dog by measuring levels of a hormone called relaxin. This hormone is produced by the developing placenta following implantation of the embryo, and can be detected in the blood in most pregnant dogs as early as 22-27 days post-breeding.

  • Having your pet properly prepared for a blood test helps to ensure that the results are as accurate and reliable as possible. Preparation for these two types of tests is slightly different. Your veterinarian will give you specific instructions before your appointment. It is important that you follow these instructions exactly to ensure accurate test results.

  • The American Animal Hospital Association and American Veterinary Medical Association have established guidelines to standardize preventive health care for dogs, helping them to live longer, healthier lives. This handout provides an overview of the recommendations within these guidelines and why they are so important.

  • X-ray images are produced by directing X-rays through a part of the body towards an absorptive surface such as an X-ray film. The image is produced by the differing energy absorption of various parts of the body: bones are the most absorptive and leave a white image on the screen whereas soft tissue absorbs varying degrees of energy depending on their density producing shades of gray on the image; while air is black. X-rays are a common diagnostic tool used for many purposes including evaluating heart size, looking for abnormal soft tissue or fluid in the lungs, assessment of organ size and shape, identifying foreign bodies, assessing orthopedic disease by looking for bone and joint abnormalities, and assessing dental disease.

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone is produced in the brain and regulates the production of cortisol. When blood cortisol levels are low it is secreted to stimulate more production and when cortisol is high it will suppress the production of ACTH. Cushing’s disease caused by a pituitary tumor will result in elevated ACTH levels in the blood, whereas Cushing’s disease caused by an adrenal tumor will result in lower ACTH blood levels as production will be suppressed by the cortisol released from the adrenal tumor. Endogenous ACTH cannot be used alone to diagnose Cushing’s disease, but can help determine what type of Cushing’s disease the patient has.

Contact

2554 Mission St.
San Francisco, CA
94110

Phone: 867 5309

Hours of Operation

Monday 9 am – 9 pm
Tuesday 9 am – 9 pm
Wednesday 9 am – 9 pm
Thursday 9 am – 9 pm
Friday 9 am – 9 pm
Saturday 9 am – 5 pm
Sunday Closed